Living in California
Even in the face of restrictive laws and discrimination, Punjabis adapted to their new lives in California. They built successful businesses and excelled as students. They established a network of community organizations and served with distinction in the armed forces. Immigration restrictions made it difficult for Punjabi women to come to the U.S. Men who wanted to have families often decided to marry Mexican Americans. Some men chose to remain as bachelors.
Karnail Singh Takhar with wife Gurmit Kaur and infant daughter, Davinder (October 1954). Photo courtesy of Kalbir and Kamaljit S. Takhar.
Bishan Singh (Gill) and Ernestina Singh (Zuniga) wedding picture 1920. Courtesy of their daughter Mary Rai.
Didar Singh and Santi Bains (Poonian) wedding picture. June 21, 1964. Photo courtesy of Bains Family.
Kartar Singh Bahowal returned to India in 1951 and married Vrinder Kaur. Courtesy of Neelam Canto-Lugo.
Lal Singh Rai and Mary Rai (circa 1950). Courtesy of Mary Rai.
Jawala Singh Bains with family (circa 1966). Mr. Jawala Singh Bains originally came to Canada in 1907 and arrived in Yuba City in 1930. He took seven years to walk an arduous journey from Mexico to reach California and became a US Citizen in 1964. Photo courtesy of Sarbjit Singh Thiara.
Kartar Singh Bahowal (left), 28, with Santiago. Kartar Singh Bahowal came to the United States in 1934. Photo courtesy of Neelam Canto-Lugo.
Chanchal Singh Rai arrived in Yuba City in 1926.