The long and arduous journey from Punjab, combined with immigration restrictions, made it difficult to reach the U.S. Immigrants from India were often grouped with other Asian people and anti-Asian sentiment in California peaked just as Punjabi immigration began to pick up in 1907. A small number of Punjabis came through the Angel Island Immigration Station while others, following seasonal work, traveled south from Canada or north from Mexico. Later legislation eventually slowed immigration from India to just a few people per year.
Immigrants on Angel Island (1916) Photo courtesy of California Department of Parks and Recreation, Angel Island State Park files - DPR File #311086
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- 1907-1908 Peak Punjabi immigration. Attacks on “Hindoos” in Bellingham, Washington, Marysville, Live Oak and other California towns
- 1910 Angel Island Immigration center opens
- 1912 First U.S. gurdwara started in Stockton Pacific Coast Khalsa Diwan Society established Guru Gobind Sinch Scholarship at U.C. Berkeley underwritten by potato farmer, Jawala Singh
- 1913 California passes the Alien Land Law. The law prohibits aliens ineligible for American citizenship from owning land or leasing land for more than three years.
- 1913 Pacific Coast Hindustani Association, later called the Gadar Party, founded
- 1914 Komagata Maru episode
- 1915 First new building dedicated at the Stockton Gurdwara
- 1917 Immigration Act of 1917, also known as the Barred Zone Act, prohibits immigration from an Asian “barred” zone, which includes the Indian subcontinent
- 1917-1918 U.S. enters World War I
- 1919 California Moslem Association formed by Punjabi Muslims in Sacramento
Nand Singh Johl, arrived in 1906 Chanan Singh Johl, arrived in 1908 from Jandiala, Punjab, India
Gandi Singh Heir, arrived in 1914